MARCHING COMPASSES (cont'd)

- C -

CAMMENGA

PROFILE - See the company's history and a compass description on Cammenga's own website.
Standard lensatic compass of the U.S. Army since 1992.
See also BRUNSON, Stocker & Yale (abbrev. 'SandY'). This item was also manufactured by Superior Magneto and many others.



Stamp in lid : 97-08-39
(encoded date?)
Model M-1950*
Technical Data

- NSN: 21-26460-02E
- Case: aluminum and brass
- Dimensions: 75 x 57 x 28mm
- Weight: 150 g
- Luminescent markings: Tritium (³H) paint
* Evolution of model M-1938
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CASELLA

(Go to Survey Compasses)

C.E.V.

PROFILE - Abbreviated name of the Italian company Costruzioni Elettromeccaniche Venegonesi (Electromechanical Products of Venegono, a city in southern Tyrol/nothern Italy) of the brothers Ecolo and Eugenio Pagani. The plant was located Via Varesina 124 in Milan (see ad in table below : "prodotti a Milano di proprietà dei Fratelli Pagani").  C.E.V. Italia (created first 1906, changed and moved to Milan in 1937, end of business?) was a manufacturer who made mainly aircraft instruments, motorcycle components, mainly speedometers, indicator and light switches etc. It manufactured for Ducati, Vespa, Moto-Guzzi and many others.  It also manufactured other technical instruments and tools, such as incubators.
We know of two versions of a compass, one of which is signed C.E.V. on the press-button inside the thumb ring, probably the later model. An unsigned (earlier?) model doesn't feature the magnetic deviation scale and its rotatable marching-course setting-arrow is entirely white while it has only a luminous arrowhead on the CEV-marked instrument.
The cardinal points are in Italian (see Miscellaneous/Cardinal Points) all printed horizontally top-down on parallel lines. The figures, letters and markings are made of radium-compound paint and can be read through a magnifying lens glued on the bezelled crystal which drives the marching course arrow :
(See also the marching compass designed by Schlacht).


Picture above courtesy
 kadmarkets and K. Takacs



Click on the images for enlarged views




The pouch and the abbr.  C.E.V.
Technical Data
- Dia.: 60 mm; Length with pendant: 40 mm
- Weight: c. 4 ozs. /135 gr.
- Divisions: 6400 mils, clockw., every 100, numbered every 200, marked in addition every 20 within a 200 Mils range on both sides of each main cardinal (see enlarged view of pic. at left)
- Transit lock (link to pic.): sliding alum. button on the side.
- Pouch material: leather imitation (cardboard?)
- Production period: 1940's to 50's

Advert. for a distance counter featuring C.E.V.'s logo

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CHETWYND

PROFILE - Captain Louis Wentworth Pakington Chetwynd (b. 15 December 1866, d. 18 April 1914, more details in Nautical Compasses) patented this compass dial in 1906.
See also Wrist and Nautical compasses



(Click on pictures for enlarged views)




The inventor's marking under the NORTH mark: Captain CHETWYND's 

The marking on the opposite side is partly concealed under a screw head:
Patent no. 25965/06
(Click HERE to view the patent)


View of the underside with the refilling screw (compare with the wrist version) 

Technical data
- Diameter (body): 70 mm
- Depth: 30 mm
- Weight: 250 gr
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CHINA

PROFILE - Chinese company: Shanghai Yonghong Instrument
(No further information available for the moment - Your help is needed.
Shanghai Yonghong Instrument -or its successor- is kindly invited to contact us.)

We display in the table below two are adaptions of a BREITHAUPT model called COKIL (see below) built under license.
- Type 5-1 was the standard compass in the Army of the People's Republic of China.
- Type 6-2 is said to have been utilized by the Viet Cong troops (North Vietnam's Army) during the war against the U.S.

BREITHAUPT-Signed Chinese Compass
Germany supported the Chinese Nationalists during the 1920s and 30s in their fight to control the Chinese mainland and repel several Japanese incursions. The German Military Mission provided military training & equipment & manufacturing expertise. Germany’s motivation was probably driven more by commercial opportunity rather than ideology. When the Nationalists eventually lost the Civil War with the Chinese Communists in 1949 and retreated to Taiwan they left the manufacturing plant and equipment behind which enabled the People's Republic of China to continue making the compasses. Click HERE for a picture of an instrument built under license of Breithaupt in the 1930s (Picture sent by a visitor).
Under the maker's name are two characters – these stand for “Soldiers”. Under these are a further six Chinese characters. A literal translation of these is:  “26 Year 10 Month” which could be “October 1926”. However, the traditional Chinese method of numbering years was based on the name of the current Emperor and the year of their reign. When China became a republic in 1912 they continued with the tradition but simply called it Year 1 and even today the Republic of China (Taiwan) still uses this system. In Taiwan this year, 2010 is Year 99. Therefore it is likely that the date on the Chinese Breithaupt is October 1937. This was the year before the German Military Mission to China was withdrawn, May 1938. (Source: Robert Thacker)

TYPE 5-1


The signs on the rose read:
- under the red star: Type 51* or production year 1951 ? This can also be read 5-1 = May First which is an important day in the whole socialist world.
- in the clinometer sector:
. company name: Shanghai Yonghong Instrument
. a concealed sign: DEGREES

(Translation: Jen-Wen Chang)
TYPE 6-2


The signs on the rose read:
- Type 62*: logical continuation after 51 or production year 1962?
- Sign in a circle: 
apparently the symbol for "cloud" in simplified Chinese. It can be the symbol or name of the factory where it is made - probably in Yunnan Province. The symbol forms part of the word "Yunnan".

* The Chinese numbers:

Picture courtesy Mandarintools
(Click on the pictures for enlarged views)
Technical Data
- Dimensions: 65 x 62 x 25mm
- Weight: 125gr
- Diameter (compass): 50mm
- Ruler (compass open): 100mm
- Rose with two divisions: 360 degrees and 6000 mils.

Map reader on the reverse side




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COLLIGNON

PROFILE -  Charles Louis Collignon était le neveu du fabricant de boussoles Henri Houlliot et employé dans son entreprise. Il conçut plusieurs évolutions grand-public du célèbre Modèle 1922 comme celle à fond transparent dont le modèle fut déposé en janvier 1934 pour 25 ans sous le n° 33637. Il refondit la société, fermée d'office pendant l'occupation allemande, sous la raison sociale Collignon-Houlliot après la Seconde Guerre mondiale.
Collignon-Houlliot a fourni des éléments de boussoles et des boussoles complètes à la plupart des revendeurs connus (MORIN etc.) jusqu'à la fin des années 1970. À notre connaissance un seul modèle a été commercialisé sous ce nom (voir à la catégorie Boussoles de gousset). Il semblerait qu'un modèle ait été mis au point en coopération avec CHAIX si l'on en juge par le dessin du disque mobile et la loupe de lecture, typiques de ce fabricant (voir ci-dessous la photo d'un exemplaire non signé qui nous a été communiquée par le fils de l'inventeur, ancien directeur et propriétaire de C-H).


Photos M. Collignon
(Cliquer sur les images pour les agrandir)

Les deux barreaux aimantés



Fiche technique
- Diam. boîtier : 70 mm
- Diam. disque mobile : 62 mm
- Capsule à amortissement liquide
- Graduation : 360° sens horaire, précision 2°, loupe de lecture collée sur le verre. Points cardinaux en blanc sur trois des rayons d'une rose des vents noire, la branche nord étant matérialisée par un triangle de peinture lumineuse.
- Equipage magnétique à deux barreaux
- Prototype unique sans suite industrielle ni commerciale ?

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COMPASS Instrument & Optical Co. Inc.

PROFILE - The Compass Instrument & Optical Company, located 268 Fourth Ave. New York 10, (other address known: 104 E. 25th St. New York 10) was created in (?) and ended ca. 1968. Retailer for many products like precision and optical instruments (scales, microscopes), measuring tools (slide rulers) etc. There was a separate catalog for each category.
We also display a BOYD sundial bearing a sticker with the white and blue COMPASS logo.

Picture at right: 1967-1968 compass catalog - (Click on image to view page 4)


(Click on pictures for enlarged views)


Technical data
(identical to the original M-1938 lensatic model made by Gurley, see above)
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CREAGH-OSBORNE

PROFILE - Captain Frank Osborne Creagh-Osborne, Royal Navy,  (1867/1943) was Superintendent of Compasses with the British Admiralty and inventor (see his portrait HERE).  His various inventions were built by H. Hughes & Son Ltd, Dent & Co & Johnson Ltd, Sperry Gyroscopes Co., etc.
There exist two versions of a sturdy and heavy LENSATIC marching compass made by SPERRY GYROSCOPE Co. BROOKLYN N.Y.
They look pretty much the same. The main differences can be seen in the pictures below.
See also the categories Wrist and Aeronautical compasses.

LENSATIC COMPASSES






(Click on the pictures
for enlarged views)




Instructions for use
and liquid composition available



MARK VII MOD. D1.

Technical Data
- Foldable rifle-type sighting system
- Crown divisions 360 deg. counter-clockwise,
- Adjustable marching course marks
- Adjustable lense
- Case: brass
- Dimensions: 83 x 60 x 32 mm
- Weight: 200 gr
- Fluid-dampened compass card

Compare with HUGHES'S BLACKER GUIDE COMPASS.





(Click on the pictures
for enlarged views)



MARK VII MOD.E.

Technical Data
- Foldable rifle-type sighting system
- Adjustable lense
- Case: brass
- Dimensions: 85 x 60 x 32 mm
- Weight: 230 gr
- Fluid-dampened compass card

Instructions for use and liquid composition available

The design shown in the table below was maybe the very first lensatic compass. However, it was apparently abandoned before the patent applied for was accepted because F. Barker & Son already had filed a patent for a lensatic compass (see DOLLOND further down).
The large lense in the lid is cut-away in its upper part so that the observer's eye could focus on an object seen over the erected front-sight pin while reading the angle value off the compass card. The case is smaller and lighter than the common prismatic compasses built later and than Captn. Chetwynd's system (above and in Wrist Comp. section).



(Click on the images for enlarged views)


Description in P. Dériaz' booklet "The Prismatic Compass" (1917)


Liquid compass with magnifying lens
INFANTRY PATTERN



Technical Data
- Sighting device: Folding pin-shaped front sight used together with a rifle-type rear sight protruding on top of the rim, above large lense (in lid window)
- Dimensions (case dia. x thickness): 2 1/4 x 1 3/16 in. (60 x 30mm)
- Weight: 6 ozs. (180 gr)
- Divisions: 360 deg. clockwise
- Manufacturer: Hughes & Son, probably 1914-15
- Radium compound figures and letters on card (radiation value: 8.5µSv/hr measured in direct contact)

User instructions (8 pages, copies available)


PRISMATIC COMPASSES
They were patented together with HUGHES & SON (see below and also in the section Wrist Compasses). In 1915, Henry A. Hughes took part in a meeting with leaders of the British Army and explained the advantages of this compass (read the minutes in 'Improvements in prismatic compasses with special reference to the Creagh-Osborne patent compass' - Ask for a copy)




Version with azimut circle

(Click on the picture for a detailed view of the dial)



(Click on the picture for enlargement)
Technical Data
- Folding rifle-type rear sighting device
- Divisions: 360 deg. clockwise, inverted on the card
- Dimensions (case dia. x thickness, w/o prism): 2 3/4 x 1 3/16 in. (68x27mm)
- Weight: 0.5 lb (250gr)
- Liquid-dampened compass card
Fig. published in the patent no. 1148/15 (12 p., copies available)

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CRC

PROFILE - Former French company that built (among others) the compass type Modèle 1922.
See also Survey and Artillery compasses.



(Click on pictures for enlarged views)
Technical data
- Dimensions and weight: see Modèle 1922
- Divisions : 400 grades, clockwise
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CRUCHONS & EMONS

PROFILE - The brand Cruchon & Emons appears on two different compass models which were used during WWI.  We guess that this was a Swiss manufacturer but we lack evidence. The patent was filed by LONGINES. Thank you for helping.
- One compass type was a mirror compass signed C. & E. BERNE or PARIS (see pic. at right) especially built for the U.S. Engineers Corps. This pattern was also produced by PLAN Ltd (click on this link for more pictures and the technical description).  After WW1, this model was proposed for hikers (see pic. at left, click on pic. for view of entire advertisement). A special version was made for Argentina's Army (Ejercito Argentino) featuring the country's coat of arms on the lid. We also have a simplified version signed Abercrombie & Fitch.

- Another model (prismatic Verner's pattern) was engraved LONDON.
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- D -

DELCROIX

PROFILE - Paul Guillaume DELCROIX was a French officer. He designed this marching compass in 1894 after he had filed a patent in 1892 for a survey compass (more information HERE). The first one was invented when he still was Capitaine and was called Règle topographique - boussole rapporteur (see Survey compasses). The second one was a small marching compass intended to comply with the French War Dept. order to design a boussole directrice.  Some items are marked Comdt D+  i.e. Commandant Delcroix.
A DELCROIX' compass was still proposed in the Secrétan catalogue (no. 344, p. 51 - ca. 1920, w/o picture).



(Pictures courtesy Jaypee - private coll.)
Technical Data
- Casing: aluminium
- Dimensions: 58 x 58 mm
- Rotatable divided circle

It consisted of a square casing on which a front sight with a vertical wire could be fixed. It also featured a thread attached to the front sight and held over the rear sight to the eye to help taking bearings. 
Delcroix published in 1896 the booklet La boussole directrice de marche", an augmented issue of the first description published in 1894 in the military weekly Revue du cercle militaire. Our copy features a hand-written note signed "P. Delcroix".

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DEMARIA-LAPIERRE

PROFILE - Former French company (more information HERE) famous at the turn of the century for its cameras.
They  produced like several other companies (see CRC, Lemaire, Secrétan, Morin) a military version of the compass type Modèle 1922.
Sources : Lucien Gratté and website c dans la boîte. See also pocket compasses.

DLM (Modèle 1922)

PROFILE - The three letters DLM stand for Demaria-Lapierre and Mollier. The company was created through the merger of Demaria-Lapierre and Mollier in 1930. DLM continued to produce the compass type Modèle 1922.



(Click on pictures for enlarged views)
Technical data
- Dimensions and weight: see Modèle 1922
- Divisions : 6400 mils, clockwise
This item was issued to Belgian troops after WWII (the abbrev. MG for Ministère de la Guerre has disappeared). It was carried in a leather pouch attached to the waist belt.
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DOIGNON

PROFILE: former French manufacturer, mainly of nautical compasses (see also the aeronautical DALOZ patent).
A factory in Malakoff (a southern district of Paris) produced this hand-held marching compass (no other information momentarily available).
Description: This instrument allowed for adaption not only of Magnetic North (arrow head with luminous paint) but also of the angular difference between the Lambert projection's North value on the French military maps (indicated by the two letters NL for Nord Lambert on either side of the zero line of the divisions) and the geographical North (NG on the central disk with the cardinal points).
The divided circle rotates by means of the base plate with notched rim. On the right hand side, a 100 mm ruler (bearing the manufacturer's name DOIGNON and the factory's address MALAKOFF) can be attached by means of a dove-tail fitting (tilted by 45 deg.).

This item was issued to the French colonial troops. Markings in the pouch flap
- Unit's stamp: 3e Battaillon / 15e R.T.A. (3rd Batt., 15th Régiment de Tirailleurs Algériens). The unit's coat-of-arms is not recognizable. For more information about this regiment and a picture of the 1st R.T.A.'s coat-of-arms, see in the French part of WIKIPEDIA the entry for the R.T.A.
- written by hand with black pencil, left of the stamp: n° 4 / 10e Cie (no. 4, 10th company).

NOTE: The provisional official users' instructions (called notice in French) call this compass type a Modèle 1922 but the instrument that was called Mle 1922 until after the Second World War is entirely different. We consider (but this still has to be substantiated) that the company DEMARIA-LAPIERRE (see above) won in this year a competition against DOIGNON for the procurement of compasses for the French armed forces. DEMARIA-LAPIERRE's dial design is not only identical with the one of the MORIN pocket compass utilized until then but its protection lid with 60 mm divisions makes the leather pouch and the removable ruler superfluous. Moreover, this compass design was much more heavy and complicated, and thus expensive.






Fitting and ruler

(Click on pictures for enlarged views)

Underside: the two pins for adaption of the magnetic declination and the angular difference between geographic North and the maps' projection North.



Provisional user's instructions
Modèle 1922
Issue Febr. 14, 1923





(Photocopies avlbl.: see SHOP)
Technical Data
- Material: brass, black paint
- Divisions: 400 grades, clockwise
- Diameter (rose): 60 mm
- Depth: 20 mm
- Weight: 225 g
- Mirror: glass glued in the lid

NOTE: The instructions describe a compass version with a black paint lubber line on the crystal (a portion of which is in luminous paint) and with automatic locking of the needle in upward position through the closing of the lid.



The Lambert projection: a reference to geographic coordinates is indicated in the top right corner.
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DOLLOND

PROFILE - British instruments manufacturer and retailer, now D&A, Dollond & Aitchison (more information HERE).
This system was 1st described in a patent application (no. 1818/1915) and in a patent appproved in 1917 (no. 103.019). It was made by F. BARKER & Son (see catalogue below) and sold by several retailers (like N. & Z.) and signed by them.





(Click on pictures for enlarged views)


The manufacturer's name DOLLOND LONDON engraved in the cover can be read through the lens.
Compare with the U.S. model M-1938
LENSATIC compass

Technical Data

- Diameter: 50 mm
- Depth: 27 mm
- Weight: 180 gr
- Card: ivory (orange colour due to radium compound - still highly radioactive!)  

Description published in a F. Barker & S. catalogue dated 1926:

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DOMATIC

PROFILE - Items probably made by the West German company WILKIE for a retailer (may be for the Austrian Market - no other information momentarily available).
These compasses feature a fluid dampened needle with "winglets" and the cover top side bears a design made of  NATO stars which are the are typical logo WILKIE's products. See also DUROPLAST and TfA.







(Click on the pictures for  enlarged views)
Technical Data
- Dimensions:
. Black case: 65 x 62 x 18mm
. Transparent plate: 11 x 65 x 20 mm
- Needle: fluid damping
- Markings: DOMATIC,
- Users instructions in 4 languages:
 English, German, French & Dutch).
- Divisions: 360 deg. and 6400 mils.
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DUROPLAST

PROFILE - Probably made by WILKIE (no other information momentarily available).




(Click on the picture for an enlarged view)
 
This compass features a foldable holding lever like the older Stockert models ('Tourist', etc.) but the fluid capsule with "winglets" and the box' design with NATO-stars are typical signs of WILKIE's products. This item could be the result of a cooperation especially made for a company producing the new synthetic material called DUROPLAST, successor of the Bakelite.
See also DOMATIC.
Technical Data
- Dimensions: 67 x 56 x 18mm
- Weight: 85 gr
- Needle: fluid damping
- No markings: the name DUROPLAST only appears in the users instructions.
- Divisions: 360 deg. and 6400 mils. The dial was also available with black figures on white ground.
- Mirror and protective cover made of a single one sheet of metal.

Users' Instructions available in German, English and French
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- E -

ENBEECO

PROFILE - Former British company. Enbeeco (link to ad) is an anagramme built from the company's name Newbold & Bulford Co. Ltd.
See also Pocket compasses.



(Click on the pictures for enlarged views)


The company's name is the sole information engraved on the rear side.
Technical Data
- Diameter: 58mm
- Height: 33mm
- Weight: 200gr
- Divisions: 360° clockwise
- Production: 1960's ?
- Material: aluminium
__________________

Pictures at right: Special version called DICI featuring 6000 MILS divisions, specially produced for Iraq's Army. 
Note the Arabic letter called jim engraved on the protection tab of the prism, the symbol of Saddam Hussein's army.

 
Picture of DIAL: go to DICI
(Pictures Jaypee - priv. coll.)
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ESCAPE COMPASSES

The Escape Compasses are presented in a specific category (click on the link for access).

ESCHENBACH

PROFILE - German company (for more information, click HERE). The 1986 catalog (8 p., copy available) displays several very simple pocket and marching compasses as well as so-called special compasses for car, ship, hiking and scuba diving (wrist) compasses. Some are displayed here under the names WILKIE, DUROPLAST, DOMATIC. However, two instruments are sufficiently special to merit being described here.
See also Pocket, Survey and Wrist compasses.




The internal electronic device

(Click for enlarged views) 
Model "Electronic" (1987)

Technical data
- Mirror type: "unfolding downwards" (similar to the RECTA system)
- An LED (light emitting diode) indicates the marching course set (red push-button on left-hand side must be depressed).

- Dimensions: 90 x 55 x 26 mm
- Weight:135 g
- Side rulers: 70 mm and 3 in.
Former military version of WILKIE's MERIDIAN PRO model in use in the Netherlands' Army. The compass currently used made by K&R features a bubble level.

Pictures: Frank Liebau
The "Radioactivity Warning" sticker signals the use of Tritium (³H) self-luminescent paint.



(Click on the pictures for enlarged views)

Model MK 9657

Technical Data

- Dimensions: 3 3/4 x 2 ½ x 1 3/16"
(95 x 62 x 29 mm)
- Weight: 7 3/4 oz. (223 gr)
- Divisions:
. bezel: 6400 mils, clockwise
. card: 6400 mils and 360 deg.
- Precision: 5-10 mils


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FALKE / FAUCON

PROFILE - This compass was probably built by LUFFT who filed the patent. It resembles the famous Bézard system (west-east-bar) in a simplified casing.


(Click on the picture for an enlarged view)

This model is based on a design patented by LUFFT in Germany in 1938 (only the Swiss patent no. 212230 is known):



The compass in colonel Schmitt's booklet Karte und Gelände:


Technical Data
- Dimensions: 100 x 60 x 12 mm
- Weight: 55 gr
- Pouch: leather imitation

The Museum possesses 2 such compasses with cardinal points in French and in German. Mid 20th c.

The FALKE compass as displayed in a WICHMANN catalogue in the 30's and a French export version called Faucon. Note the LUFFT logo, the company that built the famous Bézard compass and probably took over the export activities.

 

Facsimile of the French user instr. available
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F-L (French Limited)

PROFILE -
The Internet Compass Museum doesn't possess any data concerning this company. Your help is needed.
French Limited version of a Verner's pattern compass Mk VIII (see exhibit made by Ed. Koehn for a Verner's pattern Mk VII compass).
A facsimile of the original User Instructions can be ordered. (Click HERE to see a photograph of page one).



(Click on pictures for enlarged view)


Mark VIII: Closing the lid causes automatic locking of the compass card.
Technical Data
- Diameter: 54mm
- Depth: 21mm
- Weight: 150gr
- Pouch: leather
- Card material: aluminium
- Date: 1918
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FPM Holding - Freiberger Präzisionsmechanik

PROFILE - German company located in Freiberg (Saxony). For more information click HERE.
(Click on pictures for enlarged view)


This model name (...?) 1950's was in use with the KVP (Kasernierte Volkspolizei) the police organisation before the GDR army (NVA) was created.
HANDKOMPASS


The manufacturer's logo features a mine's entrance with two stars over three mountain summits.
The original model had a bakelite case and an aluminium lid. Later products were entirely made of bakelite and the divisions (6000 mils) were clockwise.

Technical Data
- Diameter (lid): 64mm
- Height: 16mm
- Ruler: 60mm
- Divisions: 6000 mils, counterclockwise.
User instructions (photocopies available)





(Click on pictures for enlarged views)
Technical Data
- Dimensions: 75 x 48 x 16mm
- Weight: 56gr
- Divisions: 360° counter clockwise, E-W inverted.
- Clinometer: 2x 90°
- Declination adjustment: c.45° (screw on the capsule's right side)
- Magnetic needle: screw transit lock
- Round level
- Ruker: 40mm
- Material: Aluminum
- Colour: Military-Olive green (GDR)
- Logo: only "FREIBERG"


Model F52

This model was the compass with which the paratroopers were equipped in the former East Germany's army NVA.

Particular feature:
The marching course setting bar in the middle reproduces the design of the WW II  compasses (see BREITHAUPT above) but there is a major difference: on the Western (NATO) compasses, this line is oriented on a  West-East axis while on compasses used in Eastern European (communist) countries (i.e. within the former Warsaw Pact, this line follows a North-South axis.
Technical Data
- Dimensions: 70 x 58 x 23mm
- Weight: 95gr
- Case colour: greyish-green
- Lid: plastic, black, heart shaped
LIDS COMPARED
F58 (left) - F52 (right)

Model F58

Descr. : Manual of milit. survey of the NVA (East German Army).

:






Technical Data
- as F52
- Case colour: NVA oliv green
- Lid: metallic, olive green, round


Model F65
Series with fluid needle dampening


Particular features:
the division markings are very thin. The capsule body is colourless. The luminous paint dashes on the capsules's outer back face are lackered.


Technical Data
- Dimensions: 70 x 58 x 20mm
- Weight: 68gr


Model F73
Marking: DDR on the capsule bottom




Technical Data
(Dim. & weight: same as F65)
Particular features: The divisions markings are broad. The capsule's body is yellowish. On it is the abbreviation DDR (former GDR) and markings to take into account the magnetic deviation (W-20-0-20-E).

Fig. in the manual Orientieren im Gelände (Editions: Militärverlag der DDR)
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Model Universalkompass
(Bézard system)


Technical Data
- Dimensions: 70 x 64 x 25mm
- Weight: 150gr
- Divisions: 6000 mils
- Declination adaption: with coin slot under the base plate
- Built: approx. 1965
- Clinometer: locked when not in use (clutch on lid rim)
- Together with leather pouch and manual


Pouch and user's manual


Differences between the models
Sport 3  
Ruler: 50 mm; scale: 1:25.000, 4 km
and Sport 4
Ruler: 120mm; scale: 1:15.000, 800 m
Model SPORT 3 and SPORT 4 for cross country orienteering

Technical Data
- Dimensions : 125 x 60mm
- Graduation : 360 deg
- Magnifying glass
- Step counter
- Production year: 1968


Pouch and user's manual
Model SAT for orientation of satellite antennae

Technical Data
- Dimensions : 125 x 60mm
- Graduation : 360 deg
- Clinometer: ball
- Declination correction
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French WW1 Marching compasses

- Go to Boussole directrice and also Morin

FUESS

PROFILE - R. FUESS was a German company (more information HERE). FUESS produced during WWII the infantry-men's standard Marschkompass.
During WWII, the company's secret code was 'cro'.
See also Survey and artillery compasses.


Catalogue of R. FUESS
(Click for enlarged view)


The company's name on the lid of a Marschkompass. The 1st figure was printed twice :
- 3 and 4 are overlaid

Technical Data
- (see Breithaupt, Busch, Kohl etc.).
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- G -

GAMMA

PROFILE - GAMMA R.T., now GAMMA Műszaki R.T. (Reszveny Tarsasag, Gamma Technical Corp.) is a Hungarian Manufacturer (created 1920, located in Budapest, produces measuring instruments). GAMMA built probably in the 1930's this Hungarian version of Bézard's small compass model (without mirror).
See also the large Hungarian models made by MOM and generally marked with the code number of the factory: 41. 

 

(Click on the pictures for enlarged views)


The East-West stripe reads GAMMA-BUDAPEST (compare with the original Bézard compasses)
Technical Data
- Dimensions: 2 x 225" ( 50 x 60mm)
- Weight: 70 gr
- Case material: bakelite, black
- Divisions: 6400 mils. (counter-clockwise), North = 3200
- Cardinals: in Hungarian language
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GERLACH, G.

PROFILE - Former German manufacturer of measuring and drawing instruments in Warsaw, Poland (for more information click HERE). This company won in 1933 a contract for delivering a first batch of 4285 compasses to Poland's Army. This instrument was first designated M.K.32 but soon renamed K.M.32 (click on link for comprehensive description) after its inventor's initials, Colonel Mikołaj Kulwieć maybe to differenciate it from the German common designation Marsch-Kompass, MK (for more information about M. Kulwieć, click HERE). It is also known in Poland as the „Kulwieć compass“ (cited after the Fundacja Kosciuszki's website - see LINKS).
Pict. at r.: Instrument without the coat of arms of Poland's Army and the model designation K.M.32
(Photograh courtesy M. Dörner)
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GKS

PROFILE - A small-sized user instruction (probably the oldest one) bears the manufacturer's signature GKS-Geräte K.G. Stuttgart-S, Uhlandstr. 15.
The abbreviation GKS stands (according to the heading on another user instruction) for the German word Geländekompass (field compass). When this instrument was built shortly after WWII, this abbr. was still very famous for Geheime Kommandosache ("Top Secret"). This maybe played an important role for the marketing.
 It was made by the former German manufacturer Bellmann & Co. (Belco), located in the same building than the compass' retailer NEUFA Fabrik für optisch-technische Geräte GmbH (both names appear on the user's instruction).
Neufa was created in 1946 and ended business 1970.
Bellmann & Co., located Brauhausstrasse 17 in Ansbach (Middle-Franconia), was created on May 1st, 1945 for the production of plastic (Bakelite), metallic and wooden  items. In the Yearbook for 1950/51, Belco added extruded and pressed items. The company ended business in 1975.
(Source: city archives of Anspach).

 

Small pict.: view through the lens onto the card's rim indicating the bearing value of 200 mils (c.5 deg.) West, corresponding to the magnetic North at that time (1950's)

The original box






Picture at right:
Cardboard pocket for the romer scale below with user instr. (4 pages)

(Click on the pictures for enlarged views)
Technical Data
- Dimensions: 84 x 65 x 25 mm
- Weight: 90 gr
- Divisions: 6400 mils. (counterclockwise) and figures 1-12
- The magnetic needle represented on the compass card already points to the magnetic North (MN)
- Front lens for direct reading of the bearing angle
- In the lid: clinometer (long arrow) and adjustable marching course marker (short arrow, scale 6400 mils), both made of plastic. Another model features metallic pointers.




User instructions signed by GKS-Geräte

Photocopies of all documents can be ordered.
User instructions: Belco version in German (below, at left) and modern version in English with colour photos

   

(Click on the pictures for enlarged views)
Romer scale (model ZL with magnifying glass) bearing the GKS logo (in the upper left corner) and marked D.R.G.M.


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GLAUSER

PROFILE - J. M. GLAUSER & Sons was a British manufacturer (more information HERE).
The compasses produced (see pic. of catalogue at right) were pocket hunter and wrist versions of the pocket compass Mk VI, a variation of the Mk III marching compass during WWII and a Mk IX (see below).
The Mk.4 compass was designed in the 1950s in answer to a request for a liquid prismatic compass featuring the ability to trap any bubbles inside a double casing pending topping up of liquid, and to easily replace the pivot (see Patent DRAWING - full description available on demand). It was a specialist design, of some interest, rather than a mass produced article.
In 1951, the company received a substantial order for compasses (through J. H. Steward Ltd. of the Strand, London) from the Mount Everest Reconnaissance Expedition, led by Eric Shipton - a final accolade to a skilled and high-class manufacturer, whose founder had personally designed the Light Mountain Theodolite for E.R. Watts & Son, London, which was supplied to the Mount Everest Expeditions of 1922 and 1924.
Compare with the MARK IV made by SISTECO.



(Pictures Jaypee priv. coll.)


Above: The screw at the base giving way to the pivot.
Below: a Mk.4 retailed by J.H. Steward

GLAUSER Mk.4 - Liquid Prismatic Compass
Patent no. 821719

Technical Data
- Dim.: 5 1/2 x 4 x 1 1/2 "
- Weight: 11 oz
- Divisions: 360 deg. clockwise
- Production: 1950's
(Full specification available on demand)

Rear side of a Mk IX compass (see Barker):

Note the "B" letter in the serial no.
(Picture scientificcollectables.com)
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Glavkulttorg

(in Russian главкулътторг)
PROFILE - This compass bears the words "по заказу главкулътторга" i.e. "made by request of Glavkulttorg", the Chief Agency for Trade in Cultural Goods during the Soviet Era. The manufacturer is still unknown. Its logo was a losenge in which the letter П (P) was placed inside the letter Э (E). A Marching compass called Turist-2 bears the same logo.





Picture courtesy alexmik
Click on the images for enlarged views



Aiming slot in lid
and logo near loop
Technical Data
- Diameter: 75mm
- Thickness: 20mm
- Divisions: 360°

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GURLEY

PROFILE - U.S. manufacturer (for more information click HERE).



(Click on the picture for an enlarged view)


Later French version featuring a scale for measuring speeds; range: 10 hrs/600 km (arrow at right: 1H = average speed)
(Click for an enlarged view - Picture Laurens)
Lensatic compass model M-1938

Technical data

- Dimensions: 72 x 55 x 20 mm
- Weight: 80 gr
- Divisions: 360 deg. and 6400 MILS
- Evolution of the basic design (compare with the Superior Magneto item)

This instrument featured a dampening push-button on the left hand side
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- H -

H. B. & S.

PROFILE - HENRY BROWNE & SON, Ltd was established in (18..?) in Barking, London in Essex. They were respected English instrument makers that had been making fine quality compasses, ship's clocks, inclinometers, sextants, and chandlery items for over 140 years.
A Mk III type marching compass was produced and signed either with the abbreviation H.B. & S. alone or together with the words "Trade SESTREL Mark".
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HELIOS

PROFILE - Danish-made compass with watch function. The watch scale on the dial is similar to the post WWII-produced Kadlec wrist compass made in Czechoslovakia. By pointing the zero line (red arrow) of the base plate at the sun, the needle's north end tells the hour of the day (scale on bezel.
NOTE: A picture of (or better: an original instrument) would be nice. Thank you for helping.



(Click on the images for enlarged views)

A facsimile of the original user instructions can be ordered.
Technical Data
- Compass dia.: 50 mm
- Base plate dim.: 120 x 60 mm
- Weight: 40 gr
- Compass scales: 360° (black, on bezel) and 400 gon (red, on base plate) act as a nonius ensuring a 1/5th of a degree accuracy
- Grid: square size 10x10mm
- Date: 1960s ?
- Marking: K.D. PAT. = Royal Danish Patent.
- Sole agency (and manufacturer?): N. Juul-Jensen, 34, Bredgade, Copenhagen, Denmark
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HUGHES & Son

PROFILE - British manufacturer. The firm was incorporated as Henry Hughes & Sons Ltd in 1903 and opened a production facility in Forest Gate (read the full story in Wikipedia "Kelvin Hughes / The Hughes connection").
Hughes also produced various marching and wrist compasses based on Creagh-Osborne's patent (see this name in these categories), pocket compasses and a Mk. III.
The instrument displayed here is "THE BLACKER GUIDE COMPASS". It was probably designed by Colonel Stewart Blacker (see Wikipedia) who was an explorer and inventor of the famous anti-tank weapon PIAT. He was with the expedition that first flew over Mount Everest in 1933. This model resembles strongly the compasses designed by Creagh-Osborne and built by Sperry.



Picture courtesy of R. Thacker
Click on the pictures for enlarged views


View of the base
The studs on each side were probably used to lock the compass onto a piece or artillery.
Technical Data
- Diameter: 59 mm
- Length (fore-sight folded down): 77 mm
- Weight: 205 grams
- Engraved markings on the base: A.F.R.W.  GREN. GDS. (Grenadier Guards)
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- I -

INDIAN-made Compasses

Apparently, India was by-passed when the Chinese transmitted their knowledge about magnetism and compasses to the Western world via the Arab sailors.  We display in the chapter Miscell. / Cardinal Points / India a pocket compass with cardinals in Urdu and Sanskrit and a nautical compass card in Sanskrit. India built marching compasses like the MK.3a based on the famous Mark III designed by F. Barker and a strange box named MAG. TRNG (read these entries for more details). The Indian compass markings featured the usual broad arrow (crowfoot) used by the British Army with an additional upper-case letter 'I' for India.
Today, India is the most important maker of more or less well made replicas and of entirely invented fancy models (s. chapt. BRUNTON and FAKES).

MK3a

 
MAG. TRNG. (Broad arrow and 'I' for India on back)


Click on img. above for enlarged view

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I.O.R. - Intreprinderea Optica Romana

PROFILE - Romanian manufacturer of optics. Built also this Bézard-type compass. For more information click HERE.

Model B1-69


 

(Click on pictures for enlarged views)
Technical data
- Dimensions: 65 x 65 x 17mm
- Weight: 145grs
- Mirror: metallic, square with rounded angles
- Marching direction arrow on lid not painted.

Pic at right: IOR's logo and model name
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ISRAEL

PROFILE - Mark III-type compass issued to Israel's Army (Tsahal).






Pictures courtesy Doug Carter
(Click on images for enlarged views)
Unknown Compass Type/Manufacturer
Technical data

- Manufacture date: ...
- Dimensions: ... mm
- Weight : ... g
Inscriptions in Hebrew at the lid hinge







Pictures courtesy Gail & Phil Ralph
(Click on images for enlarged views)
Technical Data
(Data: see F. Barker & Son) - Manufacture date: ?


Click on image to view the dial.

Design based on BARKER's Aerolight model
 

Pictures courtesy David Geras
(Click on images for enlarged views)
Technical Data
- Dimensions: Lid closed: 89x39x61mm; Lid open (in vert. pos.): 115x103x61mm
- Weight: 10 oz / 225gr
- Illumination: Tritium vials, six for NORTH alone! The Israelis didn't have Tritium technology. Only the UK manufactures the correct size for these compasses, and the UK refused to supply because the Israelis were breaching patent rights in copying Stanley's G150 and Barker's M-73, so they had to improvise by using lots of small ones.
Source: USTR, 2005 Special 301 Report, Apr. 29, 2005.
- Manufacturer: El-Op (Electro-Optics Industries Ltd.). For more information, see "Elbit Systems" in Wikipedia
- Manufacture date: 1976-1980
- Markings: on back: TSAHAL (Israel Defense Forces, IDF); on the prism protection tab: ... ?

NOTE: This was the last conventional compass used before Israel's Army Tsahal changed to GPS.
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ITALY

PROFILE - Italian manufacturers produced (or maybe only assembled parts sent from England?) Mk VII compasses. Examples are known signed by OFF. CHINAGLIA - BELLUNO on the compass itself and ELLETROCOSTRUZIONI CHINAGLIA - BELLUNO on the pouch and also OFFICINE G. SAIBENE - MILANO.

- J -

JEZNACKI

PROFILE - Former Polish company (Warsaw).
For more information click HERE
This manufacturer produced the compass model called K.M. 32 after its inventor's initials, Colonel Mikołaj Kulwieć, born March 24, 1890.
It is also known in Poland as the „Kulwieć compass“.
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CONTINUED